Changes in tax legislation and tax system
Our subsidiaries make significant tax and non-budgetary funds payments, in particular, profit tax, VAT, property tax and payments to social security funds. Changes in tax legislation could lead to an increase in tax payments and, consequently, to a lowering of financial results. As significant part of the operations is located in Russia, the main risks relate to changes in the legislation of the Russian tax system. The Russian Government continually reviews the Russian tax system and passes a number of laws to carry out tax reforms. The new laws generally reduce the number of taxes and the overall tax burden on business while simplifying tax legislation. Nevertheless, should the Russian taxation system suffer any changes related to increasing of tax rates, this could adversely affect our business.
Moreover, the Russian oil industry is subject to substantial taxes, including significant resources production taxes and significant export customs duties. Changes to the tax regime and customs duties rates may adversely affect the level of oil and gas exploration and development in Russia, which can adversely affect the demand for our products in Russia.
Changes in environmental law
We meet the requirements of national environmental laws at our industrial capacities location areas: the directives and regulations of Russian, the United States, the European Union, Romanian, Kazakhstan and Omani legislation.
The main ecological-and-economical risks of our Russian plants are related to expected changes and tightening of Russian environmental protection laws. Environmental legislation in Russia is currently undergoing serious reformation. The imposition of a new environmental law and regulation system may require further expenditures to modernize production operations, install new technological and waste disposal equipment, pollution and wastewater control equipment, as well as will lead to growth of the rate of payments for negative impact on the environment. Compliance with the regulations will be accompanied by stricter control by state monitoring authorities. Such changes in existing legislation may lead to additional costs or unforeseen environmental liabilities, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial position and results of operations.
We estimate that the environmental legislation of the European Union and the United States, Romania, Kazakhstan and Oman will not undergo any material changes in the near future. Nevertheless, if such changes arise, the cost of compliance with new requirements could have a material adverse effect on our business.